Building Information Modeling (BIM) maturity levels range from Level 0-3 and beyond, defining what criteria are required to be deemed BIM-compliant.
The UK maturity model (pictured below), developed by Mark Bew and Mervyn Richards, has been a useful diagram to understand the BIM maturity levels.
B1M, the world’s most subscribed-to video channel for construction, created a YouTube video explaining BIM maturity.
BIM Level 0
Unmanaged computer-aided design (CAD) including 2D drawings, and text with paper-based or electronic exchange of information, but without common standards and processes. Essentially this is a digital drawing board.
BIM Level 1
Managed CAD, with the increasing introduction of spatial coordination, standardised structures and formats as it moves towards Level 2 BIM. This may include 2D information and 3D information such as visualisations or concept development models. Level 1 can be described as 'Lonely BIM' as models are not shared between project team members.
BIM Level 2
A managed 3D environment with data attached, but created in separate discipline-based models. These separate models are assembled to form a federated model, but do not lose their identity or integrity. Data may include construction sequencing (4D) and cost (5D) information.
BIM Level 3
A single collaborative, online, project model with construction sequencing (4D), cost (5D) and project lifecycle information (6D). This is sometimes referred to as 'iBIM' (integrated BIM) and is intended to deliver better business outcomes.
How are countries using BIM?
When it comes to government BIM standards, different BIM levels are often applied to different project types.
The UK will likely become a leader in BIM adoption over the next few years. Since April 2016, as part of the Government’s Construction Strategy which aims to achieve 20% in savings on procurement costs, all centrally-procured construction projects in the UK are required to achieve BIM Level 2.
The northern European countries of Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden count amongst the earliest adopters of BIM technologies, with public standards and requirements already in place. By 2007, the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries had mandated that all design software packages need to pass Industry Foundation Class (IFC) Certification. In Norway, Since 2010, all civil state client Statsbygg projects have been using IFC file formats and BIM for the whole lifecycle of their buildings. Denmark has mandated its state clients, including Palaces and Properties Agency, the Danish University Property Agency and the Defence Construction Service, to adopt BIM practices. In Sweden, the public organizations like the Swedish Transport Administration have mandated the use of BIM from 2015.
In the United States, The US General Services Administration (GSA) formulated the National 3D-4D-BIM Program way back in 2003. In 2010, Wisconsin became the first US state to require all public projects with a budget of $5 million or more and all new construction with a budget of $2.5 million or more to incorporate BIM.
There are more nations like India, Singapore, Germany, France, and China where BIM is taking off across the world.